Modern society is characterized by a demand for maximal transparency. Simultaneously a social demand, kindled by the all-invasive presence of social networks, and a political call, as the guarantee for an accomplished democracy, it nevertheless harbours numerous dangers. The State is particularly implicated. Should one accept transparency as an obvious given or be reminded of the priority of privacy and if necessary legislate as such? The right and the left are interpellated but struggle to perceive the issues at stake linked with transparency as a political phenomenon.